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Which programming languages can I use on Android Dalvik?

Mostly, Android applications are written in Java. But i heard that its also possible to use Scala or some other languages. And I also read that it's possible to include native C/C++ code.

Is there a refernce/list available that shows which languages can be used?

+7  A: 

Scala is supported. See example.

Support for other languages is problematic:

7) Something like the dx tool can be forced into the phone, so that Java code could in principle continue to generate bytecodes, yet have them be translated into a VM-runnable form. But, at present, Java code cannot be generated on the fly. This means Dalvik cannot run dynamic languages (JRuby, Jython, Groovy). Yet. (Perhaps the dex format needs a detuned variant which can be easily generated from bytecodes.)

+1  A: 

Java and C,

C used for low level funtionalities and deveice connectivities

Java used for Framework and Application Level

you may find more information in andorid developers site.

mohammad shamsi
+18  A: 
PM - Paresh Mayani
checkout..i have added new example links for scala
PM - Paresh Mayani
thanks a lot this is really helpful
Checkout..i have added "frink Prog. for Android" detail
PM - Paresh Mayani
For having video regarding "Android Scripting Environment"....refer this links :
PM - Paresh Mayani
On 4-aug-2010, i have added detail regarding "RenderScript for Android" detail
PM - Paresh Mayani
+2  A: 

Clojure can be used, but it's slow.

See also: Clojure fork for Android, and a tutorial.

+2  A: 

I made good experiences with Scala.

I use the simple build tool (sbt: with the Android-Plugin (

+3  A: 

As stated above, many languages are avalible for developing in Android. Java, C, Scala, C++, several scripting languages etc. Thanks to Mono you are also able to develop using C# and the .Net framework. Here you have some speedcomparisions:

Keep in mind that these comparisons are made using Android 1.5. Android 2.2 includes a JIT compiler that claims to improve the performance of Dalwin by 2-5x.