Freshman Haskell programmer

```
fac n = if n == 0
then 1
else n * fac (n-1)
```

Sophomore Haskell programmer, at MIT
(studied Scheme as a freshman)

```
fac = (\(n) ->
(if ((==) n 0)
then 1
else ((*) n (fac ((-) n 1)))))
```

Junior Haskell programmer
(beginning Peano player)

```
fac 0 = 1
fac (n+1) = (n+1) * fac n
```

Another junior Haskell programmer
(read that n+k patterns are “a disgusting part of Haskell” [1]
and joined the “Ban n+k patterns”-movement [2])

```
fac 0 = 1
fac n = n * fac (n-1)
```

Senior Haskell programmer
(voted for Nixon Buchanan Bush — “leans right”)

```
fac n = foldr (*) 1 [1..n]
```

Another senior Haskell programmer
(voted for McGovern Biafra Nader — “leans left”)

```
fac n = foldl (*) 1 [1..n]
```

Yet another senior Haskell programmer
(leaned so far right he came back left again!)

```
-- using foldr to simulate foldl
fac n = foldr (\x g n -> g (x*n)) id [1..n] 1
```

Memoizing Haskell programmer
(takes Ginkgo Biloba daily)

```
facs = scanl (*) 1 [1..]
fac n = facs !! n
```

Pointless (ahem) “Points-free” Haskell programmer
(studied at Oxford)

```
fac = foldr (*) 1 . enumFromTo 1
```

Iterative Haskell programmer
(former Pascal programmer)

```
fac n = result (for init next done)
where init = (0,1)
next (i,m) = (i+1, m * (i+1))
done (i,_) = i==n
result (_,m) = m
for i n d = until d n i
```

Iterative one-liner Haskell programmer
(former APL and C programmer)

```
fac n = snd (until ((>n) . fst) (\(i,m) -> (i+1, i*m)) (1,1))
```

Accumulating Haskell programmer
(building up to a quick climax)

```
facAcc a 0 = a
facAcc a n = facAcc (n*a) (n-1)
fac = facAcc 1
```

Continuation-passing Haskell programmer
(raised RABBITS in early years, then moved to New Jersey)

```
facCps k 0 = k 1
facCps k n = facCps (k . (n *)) (n-1)
fac = facCps id
```

Boy Scout Haskell programmer
(likes tying knots; always “reverent,” he
belongs to the Church of the Least Fixed-Point [8])

```
y f = f (y f)
fac = y (\f n -> if (n==0) then 1 else n * f (n-1))
```

Combinatory Haskell programmer
(eschews variables, if not obfuscation;
all this currying’s just a phase, though it seldom hinders)

```
s f g x = f x (g x)
k x y = x
b f g x = f (g x)
c f g x = f x g
y f = f (y f)
cond p f g x = if p x then f x else g x
fac = y (b (cond ((==) 0) (k 1)) (b (s (*)) (c b pred)))
```

List-encoding Haskell programmer
(prefers to count in unary)

```
arb = () -- "undefined" is also a good RHS, as is "arb" :)
listenc n = replicate n arb
listprj f = length . f . listenc
listprod xs ys = [ i (x,y) | x<-xs, y<-ys ]
where i _ = arb
facl [] = listenc 1
facl [email protected](_:pred) = listprod n (facl pred)
fac = listprj facl
```

Interpretive Haskell programmer
(never “met a language” he didn't like)

```
-- a dynamically-typed term language
data Term = Occ Var
| Use Prim
| Lit Integer
| App Term Term
| Abs Var Term
| Rec Var Term
type Var = String
type Prim = String
-- a domain of values, including functions
data Value = Num Integer
| Bool Bool
| Fun (Value -> Value)
instance Show Value where
show (Num n) = show n
show (Bool b) = show b
show (Fun _) = ""
prjFun (Fun f) = f
prjFun _ = error "bad function value"
prjNum (Num n) = n
prjNum _ = error "bad numeric value"
prjBool (Bool b) = b
prjBool _ = error "bad boolean value"
binOp inj f = Fun (\i -> (Fun (\j -> inj (f (prjNum i) (prjNum j)))))
-- environments mapping variables to values
type Env = [(Var, Value)]
getval x env = case lookup x env of
Just v -> v
Nothing -> error ("no value for " ++ x)
-- an environment-based evaluation function
eval env (Occ x) = getval x env
eval env (Use c) = getval c prims
eval env (Lit k) = Num k
eval env (App m n) = prjFun (eval env m) (eval env n)
eval env (Abs x m) = Fun (\v -> eval ((x,v) : env) m)
eval env (Rec x m) = f where f = eval ((x,f) : env) m
-- a (fixed) "environment" of language primitives
times = binOp Num (*)
minus = binOp Num (-)
equal = binOp Bool (==)
cond = Fun (\b -> Fun (\x -> Fun (\y -> if (prjBool b) then x else y)))
prims = [ ("*", times), ("-", minus), ("==", equal), ("if", cond) ]
-- a term representing factorial and a "wrapper" for evaluation
facTerm = Rec "f" (Abs "n"
(App (App (App (Use "if")
(App (App (Use "==") (Occ "n")) (Lit 0))) (Lit 1))
(App (App (Use "*") (Occ "n"))
(App (Occ "f")
(App (App (Use "-") (Occ "n")) (Lit 1))))))
fac n = prjNum (eval [] (App facTerm (Lit n)))
```

Static Haskell programmer
(he does it with class, he’s got that fundep Jones!
After Thomas Hallgren’s “Fun with Functional Dependencies” [7])

```
-- static Peano constructors and numerals
data Zero
data Succ n
type One = Succ Zero
type Two = Succ One
type Three = Succ Two
type Four = Succ Three
-- dynamic representatives for static Peanos
zero = undefined :: Zero
one = undefined :: One
two = undefined :: Two
three = undefined :: Three
four = undefined :: Four
-- addition, a la Prolog
class Add a b c | a b -> c where
add :: a -> b -> c
instance Add Zero b b
instance Add a b c => Add (Succ a) b (Succ c)
-- multiplication, a la Prolog
class Mul a b c | a b -> c where
mul :: a -> b -> c
instance Mul Zero b Zero
instance (Mul a b c, Add b c d) => Mul (Succ a) b d
-- factorial, a la Prolog
class Fac a b | a -> b where
fac :: a -> b
instance Fac Zero One
instance (Fac n k, Mul (Succ n) k m) => Fac (Succ n) m
-- try, for "instance" (sorry):
--
-- :t fac four
```

Beginning graduate Haskell programmer
(graduate education tends to liberate one from petty concerns
about, e.g., the efficiency of hardware-based integers)

```
-- the natural numbers, a la Peano
data Nat = Zero | Succ Nat
-- iteration and some applications
iter z s Zero = z
iter z s (Succ n) = s (iter z s n)
plus n = iter n Succ
mult n = iter Zero (plus n)
-- primitive recursion
primrec z s Zero = z
primrec z s (Succ n) = s n (primrec z s n)
-- two versions of factorial
fac = snd . iter (one, one) (\(a,b) -> (Succ a, mult a b))
fac' = primrec one (mult . Succ)
-- for convenience and testing (try e.g. "fac five")
int = iter 0 (1+)
instance Show Nat where
show = show . int
(zero : one : two : three : four : five : _) = iterate Succ Zero
```

Origamist Haskell programmer
(always starts out with the “basic Bird fold”)

```
-- (curried, list) fold and an application
fold c n [] = n
fold c n (x:xs) = c x (fold c n xs)
prod = fold (*) 1
-- (curried, boolean-based, list) unfold and an application
unfold p f g x =
if p x
then []
else f x : unfold p f g (g x)
downfrom = unfold (==0) id pred
-- hylomorphisms, as-is or "unfolded" (ouch! sorry ...)
refold c n p f g = fold c n . unfold p f g
refold' c n p f g x =
if p x
then n
else c (f x) (refold' c n p f g (g x))
-- several versions of factorial, all (extensionally) equivalent
fac = prod . downfrom
fac' = refold (*) 1 (==0) id pred
fac'' = refold' (*) 1 (==0) id pred
```

Cartesianally-inclined Haskell programmer
(prefers Greek food, avoids the spicy Indian stuff;
inspired by Lex Augusteijn’s “Sorting Morphisms” [3])

```
-- (product-based, list) catamorphisms and an application
cata (n,c) [] = n
cata (n,c) (x:xs) = c (x, cata (n,c) xs)
mult = uncurry (*)
prod = cata (1, mult)
-- (co-product-based, list) anamorphisms and an application
ana f = either (const []) (cons . pair (id, ana f)) . f
cons = uncurry (:)
downfrom = ana uncount
uncount 0 = Left ()
uncount n = Right (n, n-1)
-- two variations on list hylomorphisms
hylo f g = cata g . ana f
hylo' f (n,c) = either (const n) (c . pair (id, hylo' f (c,n))) . f
pair (f,g) (x,y) = (f x, g y)
-- several versions of factorial, all (extensionally) equivalent
fac = prod . downfrom
fac' = hylo uncount (1, mult)
fac'' = hylo' uncount (1, mult)
```

Ph.D. Haskell programmer
(ate so many bananas that his eyes bugged out, now he needs new lenses!)

```
-- explicit type recursion based on functors
newtype Mu f = Mu (f (Mu f)) deriving Show
in x = Mu x
out (Mu x) = x
-- cata- and ana-morphisms, now for *arbitrary* (regular) base functors
cata phi = phi . fmap (cata phi) . out
ana psi = in . fmap (ana psi) . psi
-- base functor and data type for natural numbers,
-- using a curried elimination operator
data N b = Zero | Succ b deriving Show
instance Functor N where
fmap f = nelim Zero (Succ . f)
nelim z s Zero = z
nelim z s (Succ n) = s n
type Nat = Mu N
-- conversion to internal numbers, conveniences and applications
int = cata (nelim 0 (1+))
instance Show Nat where
show = show . int
zero = in Zero
suck = in . Succ -- pardon my "French" (Prelude conflict)
plus n = cata (nelim n suck )
mult n = cata (nelim zero (plus n))
-- base functor and data type for lists
data L a b = Nil | Cons a b deriving Show
instance Functor (L a) where
fmap f = lelim Nil (\a b -> Cons a (f b))
lelim n c Nil = n
lelim n c (Cons a b) = c a b
type List a = Mu (L a)
-- conversion to internal lists, conveniences and applications
list = cata (lelim [] (:))
instance Show a => Show (List a) where
show = show . list
prod = cata (lelim (suck zero) mult)
upto = ana (nelim Nil (diag (Cons . suck)) . out)
diag f x = f x x
fac = prod . upto
```

Post-doc Haskell programmer
(from Uustalu, Vene and Pardo’s “Recursion Schemes from Comonads” [4])

```
-- explicit type recursion with functors and catamorphisms
newtype Mu f = In (f (Mu f))
unIn (In x) = x
cata phi = phi . fmap (cata phi) . unIn
-- base functor and data type for natural numbers,
-- using locally-defined "eliminators"
data N c = Z | S c
instance Functor N where
fmap g Z = Z
fmap g (S x) = S (g x)
type Nat = Mu N
zero = In Z
suck n = In (S n)
add m = cata phi where
phi Z = m
phi (S f) = suck f
mult m = cata phi where
phi Z = zero
phi (S f) = add m f
-- explicit products and their functorial action
data Prod e c = Pair c e
outl (Pair x y) = x
outr (Pair x y) = y
fork f g x = Pair (f x) (g x)
instance Functor (Prod e) where
fmap g = fork (g . outl) outr
-- comonads, the categorical "opposite" of monads
class Functor n => Comonad n where
extr :: n a -> a
dupl :: n a -> n (n a)
instance Comonad (Prod e) where
extr = outl
dupl = fork id outr
-- generalized catamorphisms, zygomorphisms and paramorphisms
gcata :: (Functor f, Comonad n) =>
(forall a. f (n a) -> n (f a))
-> (f (n c) -> c) -> Mu f -> c
gcata dist phi = extr . cata (fmap phi . dist . fmap dupl)
zygo chi = gcata (fork (fmap outl) (chi . fmap outr))
para :: Functor f => (f (Prod (Mu f) c) -> c) -> Mu f -> c
para = zygo In
-- factorial, the *hard* way!
fac = para phi where
phi Z = suck zero
phi (S (Pair f n)) = mult f (suck n)
-- for convenience and testing
int = cata phi where
phi Z = 0
phi (S f) = 1 + f
instance Show (Mu N) where
show = show . int
```

Tenured professor
(teaching Haskell to freshmen)

```
fac n = product [1..n]
```