I had a discussion with a developer earlier today re identifying TCP packets going out on a particular interface with the same payload. He told me that the probability of finding a TCP packet that has an equal payload (even if the same data is sent out several times) is very low due to the way TCP packets are constructed at system level....

I am looking for a Java-based numerical method package that provides functionality including:
Solving systems of equations using different numerical analysis algorithms.
Matrix methods (e.g., inversion).
Spline approximations.
Probability distributions and statistical methods.
In this case, "best" is defined as a package with a matur...

I'm writing a number of articles meant to teach beginning programming concepts through the use of poker-related topics. Currently, I'm working on the subject of shuffling.
As Jeff Atwood points out on CodingHorror.com, one simple shuffling method (iterating through an array and swapping each card with a random card elsewhere in the arra...

I am doing a project at the moment, and in the interest of code reuse, I went looking for a library that can perform some probabilistic accept/reject of an item:
i.e., there are three people (a, b c), and each of them have a probability P{i} of getting an item, where p{a} denotes the probability of a. These probabilities are calculated...

I need to explain to the client why dupes are showing up between 2 supposedly different exams. It's been 20 years since Prob and Stats.
I have a generated Multiple choice exam.
There are 192 questions in the database,
100 are chosen at random (no dupes).
Obviously, there is a 100% chance of there being at least 8 dupes between any two...

I'm writing a small article on humanly readable alternatives to Guids/UIDs, for example those used on TinyURL for the url hashes (which are often printed in magazines, so need to be short).
The simple uid I'm generating is - 6 characters: either a lowercase letter (a-z) or 0-9.
"According to my calculations captain", that's 6 mutually...

Hello,
The expected probability of randomly selecting an element from a set of n elements is P=1.0/n .
Suppose I check P using an unbiased method sufficiently many times. What is the distribution type of P? It is clear that P is not normally distributed, since cannot be negative. Thus, may I correctly assume that P is gamma distributed? ...

Say we have normal distribution n(x): mean=0 and \int_{-a}^{a} n(x) = P.
What is the easiest way to compute standard deviation of such distribution? May be there are standard libraries for python or C, that are suitable for that task?
...

Hi, I was wondering if there is a smart way to find out
There is a 1/4 chance something happens.
I know we can do this with rand() % 4 and checking if it is equal to 0, but is there a way without using rand()? In c++, thanks.
...

I am planning to study theory of probability. I studied it when i was in high school. I was trying to solve a problem and i felt that i have forgotten most of it. Can anyone suggest any an easy to read book on it.
...

I have a problem involving a collection of continuous probability distribution functions, most of which are determined empirically (e.g. departure times, transit times). What I need is some way of taking two of these PDFs and doing arithmetic on them. E.g. if I have two values x taken from PDF X, and y taken from PDF Y, I need to get t...

You are shown two envelopes and told that they both contain money, one twice as much as the other. You select one of them at random - it contains $100. Now you are given the choice to either keep the $100 or the contents of the other envelope instead.
Question: is it better for you to switch, or better not to switch?
This is a case of ...

I am working on a simulation system. I will soon have experimental data (histograms) for the real-world distribution of values for several simulation inputs.
When the simulation runs, I would like to be able to produce random values that match the measured distribution. I'd prefer to do this without storing the original histograms...

For a project I have a specification with formulas, I have to implement. In these formulas a cumulative standard normal distribution function exists, that takes a float and outputs a probability. The function is symbolized by a Φ. Exists a Java-library, that computes this function?
...

This is a good one because it's so counter-intuitive:
Imagine an urn filled with balls, two-thirds of which are of one color and one-third of which are of another. One individual has drawn 5 balls from the urn and found that 4 are red and 1 is white. Another individual has drawn 20 balls and found that 12 are red and 8 are white. Whi...

I just had a clever idea (I think).
Suppose you wanted to estimate the size of a userbase of a site which does not publicize this information.
People are more likely to have acquired different usernames with different probabilities. For instance, if the username 'nick' doesn't exist on the system, it's likely to have an extremely small...

I want to simulate N-dimensional biased die?
def roll(N,bias):
'''this function rolls N dimensional die with biasing provided'''
# do something
return result
>> N=6
>> bias=( 0.20,0.20,0.15,0.15,0.14,0.16,)
>> roll(N,bias)
2
...

For a game I'm trying to determine the frequency that a certain # will show up at a given # of dice being rolled. I know... that question seems odd. Let me try to explain it with real numbers.
So, for 1 die, the frequency for each number will be identical. 1-6 will show up equal number of times.
Now for 2 dice, things get different. I ...

I have a bunch of keys that each have an unlikeliness variable. I want to randomly choose one of these keys, yet I want it to be more unlikely for unlikely (key, values) to be chosen than a less unlikely (a more likely) object. I am wondering if you would have any suggestions, preferably an existing python module that I could use, else I...

I need a function which returns an array in random order. I want to ensure that it is randomish but I have no idea how one would go about writing the tests to ensure that the array really is random. I can run the code a bunch of times and see if I have the same answer more than once. While collisions are unlikely for large arrays it i...